Itchen Navigation: Introduction
The Itchen Navigation has a long and complex history, having a claim to being one of the oldest in the country. As a commercial waterway, however, the Navigation has been defunct for 150 years, the last cargo carrying barge reached Blackbridge Wharf, Winchester in June 1869.
Despite this period of neglect and dereliction, the waterway is remarkably intact with little positively destroyed; rather it has been allowed to moulder away half-forgotten. Given modern society’s ability to create rubbish and to deposit it in any half hidden corner, it is surprising there is almost no refuse in or by the Navigation. It suffers few intrusions from development.
From around the 17th century until the 1930s, large sections of the Itchen Valley were farmed as water meadows. Water was taken from the river and the Navigation and then channelled across the meadows by a series of carriers running along the top of ridges. The water flow and levels were carefully controlled by a system of hatches and sluices, the workers managing the meadow being called “drowners”. To flood parts of the meadow, they would place turf sods into the carrier channel to overflow that section of the ridge. This caused the water to trickle down the banks and at the bottom of each ridge a drainage channel took the water back to a main drain and eventually back to the river itself. This process was known as “floating” and would start each year in late winter. It encouraged the early and rapid spring growth of the grass (by raising the temperature of the soil insulating the grass from frost), whilst spreading useful silt and nutrients across the meadow. This very labour intensive form of land management made it possible to produce two hay crops a year in addition to periodic grazing by cattle and sheep.
For those interested in the way that the water meadows used to be drowned (or flooded) in late winter, there is a paper entitled “Bishopstoke Water Meadows” written by Mr R G Morris who was one of the last drowners in the Bishopstoke area. This may be found on the website of Eastleigh & District Local History Society.
It is quite noticeable that since the 1980s trees and bushes have been allowed to grow almost unchecked along much of the Navigation. In places this growth has come to seriously threaten the fabric of the waterway: several breaches of the banks have occurred in the last few years. However, some of this neglect was tackled by the Itchen Navigation Heritage Trail Project between 2007 and 2012. But since the completion of this project, there is little evidence that serious efforts are continuing to actively maintain the work achieved and areas that were worked on are in danger of deteriorating again and disappearing from view.
As the project reached its conclusion, the Wildlife Trust published a pamphlet summarising the work achieved during the project. This publication used to appear on the Trust’s website but no longer. However, a copy can be read here (opens in a new window/tab - size 3.88MB).
During the remedial works carried out by the Itchen Navigation Heritage Trail Project, it was deemed necessary to erect a fence along much of the Navigation between the the path and the water. This would allow vegetation to grow untrampled and this would help bind and stabilise the bank. It would also prevent the erosion of the bank caused by dogs scrambling out of the waterway after a swim.
At various places along the Navigation, “Dog Dips” were built to help dogs enter and leave the water. However, these together with the fence between the path and the water have not entirely cured the erosion problem. In places where there is no fence, it seems that bank erosion has increased as dog swimming has become concentrated on shorter lengths of the waterway.
In addition, fences have increasingly been erected between the path and adjacent meadows for several of reasons. Often, it has been deemed necessary to prevent disturbance of the wildlife and/or vegetation in a nature reserve that was set up to protect them. In other cases, it has been necessary to keep livestock from escaping through gates left open by walkers and also gates need maintenance - the traditional use of stiles is no longer considered permissible as they ‘inhibit’ access. Landowners are also concerned about people or their dogs worrying their animals. Fencing in livestock also allays walkers’ fears of farm animals such as cattle.
One downside to the fencing installed along the Navigation is the sense of being hemmed in. Unfortunately, it also means that trees and bushes can grow unhindered and it seems quite possible that eventually a screen of trees will mask lengths of the waterway and meadows from the walker. In the past and in the absence of fencing, grazing animals had access to the path and could eat the young trees and bushes whilst still small. Thirty or more years ago considerable lengths of the waterway were unfenced and this was a distinctive feature of the Itchen Navigation.
It seems that, since the 1980s, changes to water management within the Itchen Valley have occurred and sections of the Navigation that used to have significant flows have had these much diminished and to the south of St Catherine Lock to have ceased altogether for much of the year. On other sections, water levels have often been allowed to rise and overflow the banks potentially risking breaches and floods.
The Itchen Navigation and River Itchen hold a thriving population of fish, particularly brown trout, grayling, pike, eels and minnows. The waterways are of international importance for several species of aquatic Ranunculus (water crowfoot), Southern Damselfly and Bullhead populations. They are also important as a home to White-clawed (or Atlantic stream) Crayfish, Brook Lamprey, Atlantic Salmon and Otters. Most of the Navigation falls within areas designated as Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). The River and much of the Navigation are also designated a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) under the European Habitats Directive.
The Itchen Navigation Heritage Trail (which is part of the Itchen Way and was formerly called the Itchen Navigation Footpath) follows the towing path for much of the waterway from Winchester to Southampton. Parts of it are probably as heavily used as any public footpath in Hampshire.
Public rights of navigation between Winchester and Wood Mill were conferred by Act of Parliament in 1802. These rights have not been extinguished legally although, in practice, they are not easy to exercise. Parts of the Navigation have no water supply but even where water does flow, fishing interests and landowners actively discourage the use of any boats.
Fishing on the River Itchen and the Navigation, where it is in water, is an important pastime. Indeed, the Itchen is considered one of the best streams in the world for trout fishing and rights are carefully protected. The River Itchen and the adjoining River Test are famous chalk streams which were the birthplace of dry fly fishing.
This river is an important part of our national heritage.
Whilst this site gives a fairly detailed account of the Navigation, the following sites used to cover other aspects of the River Itchen:
Itchen Navigation Heritage Trail Project
A site called www.itchennavigation.org.uk used to give details and news of the project to conserve the Navigation but this was superseded by a much diminished part of the Hampshire & Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust website. During 2018, all reference to the Itchen Navigation on their website at http://www.hiwwt.org.uk/ seems to have been removed.
River Itchen Archaeological Project Website
A website called http://www.geog.port.ac.uk/webmap/itchen/ (which no longer exists) dealt with archaeological investigations undertaken on the tidal part of the river in Southampton. Further information may be available from the Maritime Archaeology Trust.